Recently, the research interest regarding ammonia applications in energy systems has been increasing. Ammonia is an important hydrogen carrier that can also be obtained starting from renewable energy sources. Furthermore, ammonia can be used as a carbon-free fuel in combustion systems. In particular, the behavior of internal combustion engines (ICEs), fueled by ammonia, needs to be further investigated. The main disadvantage of this kind of fuel is its low laminar flame speed when it is oxidized with air. On the other hand, considering a spark-ignition (SI) engine, the absence of knock phenomena could allow a performance improvement. In this work, a 1D numerical approach was used in order to assess the performance and the operating limits of a downsized PFI SI engine fueled with pure ammonia. Furthermore, the reliability of the 1D model was verified by means of a 3D approach. Both throttled and unthrottled engine operation was investigated. In particular, different boost levels were analyzed under WOT (wide-open throttle) conditions. The potential of the 1D approach was also exploited to evaluate the effect of different geometrical compression ratio on the ammonia engine behavior. The results show that the low laminar flame speed of ammonia–air mixtures leads to increased combustion durations and optimal spark timings more advanced than the typical ones of SI engines. On the other hand, knock phenomena are always avoided. Due to the engine operating limits, the maximum rotational speed guaranteeing proper engine operation is 3000 rpm, except for at the highest boost level. At this regime, the load regulation can be critical in terms of unburned fuel emissions. Considering increased compression ratios and no boost conditions, even the 4000 rpm operating point guarantees proper engine operation.

Assessment of the Operation of an SI Engine Fueled with Ammonia

Lanni D.
;
Galloni E.;Fontana G.;D'Antuono G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Recently, the research interest regarding ammonia applications in energy systems has been increasing. Ammonia is an important hydrogen carrier that can also be obtained starting from renewable energy sources. Furthermore, ammonia can be used as a carbon-free fuel in combustion systems. In particular, the behavior of internal combustion engines (ICEs), fueled by ammonia, needs to be further investigated. The main disadvantage of this kind of fuel is its low laminar flame speed when it is oxidized with air. On the other hand, considering a spark-ignition (SI) engine, the absence of knock phenomena could allow a performance improvement. In this work, a 1D numerical approach was used in order to assess the performance and the operating limits of a downsized PFI SI engine fueled with pure ammonia. Furthermore, the reliability of the 1D model was verified by means of a 3D approach. Both throttled and unthrottled engine operation was investigated. In particular, different boost levels were analyzed under WOT (wide-open throttle) conditions. The potential of the 1D approach was also exploited to evaluate the effect of different geometrical compression ratio on the ammonia engine behavior. The results show that the low laminar flame speed of ammonia–air mixtures leads to increased combustion durations and optimal spark timings more advanced than the typical ones of SI engines. On the other hand, knock phenomena are always avoided. Due to the engine operating limits, the maximum rotational speed guaranteeing proper engine operation is 3000 rpm, except for at the highest boost level. At this regime, the load regulation can be critical in terms of unburned fuel emissions. Considering increased compression ratios and no boost conditions, even the 4000 rpm operating point guarantees proper engine operation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11580/94644
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