The contamination of sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely spread for years due to human activities, imposing the research and development of effective remediation technologies for achieving efficient treatment and reuse of sediments. In this context, the amendment of biochar in PAH-contaminated sediments has been lately proposed as an innovative and sustainable technology. This review provides detailed information about the mechanisms and impacts associated with the supplementation of biochar to sediments polluted by PAHs. The properties of biochar employed in these applications have been thoroughly examined. Sorption onto biochar is the main mechanism involved in PAH removal from sediments. Sorption efficiency can be significantly improved even in the presence of a low remediation time (i.e. 30 d) when a multi-PAH system is used and biochar is provided with a high dosage (i.e. by 5% in a mass ratio with the sediment) and a specific surface area of approximately 360 m2 g-1. The use of biochar results in a decrease (i.e. up to 20%) of the PAH degradation during bioaugmentation and phytoremediation of sediments, as a consequence of the reduction of PAH bioavailability and an increase of water and nutrient retention. In contrast, PAH degradation has been reported to increase up to 54% when nitrate is used as electron acceptor in low-temperature biochar-amended sediments. Finally, biochar is effective in co-application with Fe2+ for the persulfate degradation of PAHs (i.e. up to 80%), mainly when a high catalyst dose and an acidic pH are used.

The addition of biochar as a sustainable strategy for the remediation of PAH-contaminated sediments

Bianco, Francesco;Race, Marco;
2021

Abstract

The contamination of sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely spread for years due to human activities, imposing the research and development of effective remediation technologies for achieving efficient treatment and reuse of sediments. In this context, the amendment of biochar in PAH-contaminated sediments has been lately proposed as an innovative and sustainable technology. This review provides detailed information about the mechanisms and impacts associated with the supplementation of biochar to sediments polluted by PAHs. The properties of biochar employed in these applications have been thoroughly examined. Sorption onto biochar is the main mechanism involved in PAH removal from sediments. Sorption efficiency can be significantly improved even in the presence of a low remediation time (i.e. 30 d) when a multi-PAH system is used and biochar is provided with a high dosage (i.e. by 5% in a mass ratio with the sediment) and a specific surface area of approximately 360 m2 g-1. The use of biochar results in a decrease (i.e. up to 20%) of the PAH degradation during bioaugmentation and phytoremediation of sediments, as a consequence of the reduction of PAH bioavailability and an increase of water and nutrient retention. In contrast, PAH degradation has been reported to increase up to 54% when nitrate is used as electron acceptor in low-temperature biochar-amended sediments. Finally, biochar is effective in co-application with Fe2+ for the persulfate degradation of PAHs (i.e. up to 80%), mainly when a high catalyst dose and an acidic pH are used.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11580/80117
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