The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates the properties of healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) localized in specific niches. Two distinct microenvironmental niches have been identified in the BM, the “osteoblastic (endosteal)” and “vascular” niches. Nevertheless, these niches provide sanctuaries where subsets of leukemic cells escape chemotherapy-induced death and acquire a drug-resistant phenotype. Moreover, it is emerging that leukemia cells are able to remodel the BM niches into malignant nicheswhich better support neoplastic cell survival and proliferation. This review focuses on the cellular andmolecular biology ofmicroenvironment/ leukemia interactions in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of both B- and T-cell lineage. We shall also highlight the emerging role of exosomes/microvesicles as efficient messengers for cell-to-cell communication in leukemia settings. Studies on the interactions between the BM microenvironment and ALL cells have led to the discovery of potential therapeutic targetswhich include cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, adhesion molecules, signal transduction pathways, and hypoxia-related proteins. The complex interplays between leukemic cells and BM microenvironment components provide a rationale for innovative, molecularly targeted therapies, designed to improve ALL patient outcome. A better understanding of the contribution of the BMmicroenvironment to the process of leukemogenesis and leukemia persistence after initial remission,may provide new targets that will allow destruction of leukemia cells without adversely affecting healthy HSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: TumorMicroenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis,Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza.

Advances in understanding the acute lymphoblastic leukemia bone marrow microenvironment: From biology to therapeutic targeting

CAPPELLINI, Alessandra;
2016-01-01

Abstract

The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates the properties of healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) localized in specific niches. Two distinct microenvironmental niches have been identified in the BM, the “osteoblastic (endosteal)” and “vascular” niches. Nevertheless, these niches provide sanctuaries where subsets of leukemic cells escape chemotherapy-induced death and acquire a drug-resistant phenotype. Moreover, it is emerging that leukemia cells are able to remodel the BM niches into malignant nicheswhich better support neoplastic cell survival and proliferation. This review focuses on the cellular andmolecular biology ofmicroenvironment/ leukemia interactions in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of both B- and T-cell lineage. We shall also highlight the emerging role of exosomes/microvesicles as efficient messengers for cell-to-cell communication in leukemia settings. Studies on the interactions between the BM microenvironment and ALL cells have led to the discovery of potential therapeutic targetswhich include cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, adhesion molecules, signal transduction pathways, and hypoxia-related proteins. The complex interplays between leukemic cells and BM microenvironment components provide a rationale for innovative, molecularly targeted therapies, designed to improve ALL patient outcome. A better understanding of the contribution of the BMmicroenvironment to the process of leukemogenesis and leukemia persistence after initial remission,may provide new targets that will allow destruction of leukemia cells without adversely affecting healthy HSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: TumorMicroenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis,Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11580/54540
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